The nursing labour market, once characterized by cyclical periods of shortage and surplus, has progressed to a stage where there now exists a pervasive shortage of nursing human resources. In many jurisdictions and health service delivery areas the demand is critical. To address this problem, government and health organizations have implemented strategies to increase the available supply of nurses, but with varying degrees of success. Data indicate that, while the supply of nurses entering practice is increasing, attrition from the field remains an ongoing problem. Increasing the numbers of new graduate nurses may not be sufficient to overcome the exodus of nurses from the profession due to retirement or work-life issues. While the current nursing shortfall is generally widespread, there are areas where it is more acute, for example in northern and rural communities, and in specialty areas such as the emergency room, long-term care, and critical care units. There is also a shortage of nursing faculty.